Category Archives: Europe

ÉMILE DURKHEIM
(1858-1917)

from Suicide

  Émile Durkheim is widely regarded as the founder of the French school of sociology. He was born in Épinal, Lorraine, to a Jewish family who expected him to become a rabbi like his father. Instead, his success in secular … Continue reading

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Filed under Durkheim, Emile, Europe, Selections, Societal Organizations, The Modern Era

FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
(1844-1900)

from Thus Spake Zarathustra:    Voluntary Death
from The Twilight of the Idols: A Moral    for Doctors

  Friedrich Nietzsche, one of the most influential and controversial figures in German philosophical thought, was born in Rocken, Prussia, and studied theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn. One year later, he gave up theology, having lost … Continue reading

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Filed under Dignity, Europe, Nietzsche, Friedrich, Selections, The Modern Era

EDUARD VON HARTMANN
(1842-1906)

from Philosophy of the Unconscious

  Born in Berlin in 1842, Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann initially intended to embark on a military career. However, plagued by a problem with his knee, he turned to philosophy, obtaining a doctorate from the University of Rostock. Hartmann … Continue reading

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Filed under Christianity, Europe, Hartmann, Eduard von, Selections, The Modern Era

A.B. MITFORD, LORD REDESDALE
(1837-1916)

from An Account of the Hara-Kiri

  Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford, 1st Baron of Redesdale, was the second secretary to the British Legation in Japan when he published Tales of Old Japan (1871), a collection of stories, fairy tales, accounts of superstitions, sermons, and other short pieces … Continue reading

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Filed under Asia, Europe, Mitford, A. B., Lord Redesdale, Selections, The Modern Era

FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY
(1821-1881)

from The Diary of a Writer
  • In Lieu of a Preface on the Great and Little Bear, on the Prayer of the Great Goethe, And, Generally, on Bad Habits
  • Two Suicides
  • The Verdict
  • Arbitrary Assertions
  • A Few Words About Youth
  • On Suicides and Haughtiness
  • The Boy Celebrating His Saint’s Day
  • The Dream of a Strange Man: A Fantastic Story

  Fyodor Dostoevsky was born in Moscow, the second child of a civil servant, a surgeon in a hospital for the poor. Despite their love of literature, Dostoevsky’s father compelled his sons to attend the St. Petersburg Academy of Engineers … Continue reading

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Filed under Dostoevsky, Fyodor, Europe, Selections, The Modern Era

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE
(1820-1910)

from Note, Christmas Eve, 1850
from Nightingale’s draft novel
from Draft for Suggestions for Thought    to Searchers After Religious Truth    (1860)
from Notes on Nursing for the    Labouring Classes (1861)
from Note to Benjamin Jowett (c. 1866)
Reflections on
George MacDonald’s    Novel, Robert Falconer (1868)
Truth and Feeling (1871 or later)

from Notes on Egypt: Mysticism and    Eastern Religions

  Florence Nightingale was born in Florence, Italy (hence her name), but raised by her wealthy family in England, educated primarily by her father. As a member of the upper class, she was expected to marry, to visit, and to … Continue reading

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Filed under Christianity, Europe, Illness and Old Age, Nightingale, Florence, Selections, The Modern Era

KARL MARX
(1818-1883)

from Peuchet on Suicide

  Born in Trier, Prussia, the third of seven children, Karl Heinrich Marx was educated at home until the age of 13. His father, descended from a long line of rabbis, was prohibited by the Prussian authorities from practicing law … Continue reading

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Filed under Communism, Europe, Marx, Karl, Selections, Societal Organizations, The Modern Era

FORBES WINSLOW
(1810-1874)

from The Anatomy of Suicide: Can Suicide be Prevented by Legislative Enactments?

  The ninth son in a family that had lost its American property in the War of Independence and returned to England, the physician Forbes Winslow was born in Pentonville, London. He was educated at University College, London and the … Continue reading

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Filed under Europe, Psychiatry, Selections, The Modern Era, Winslow, Forbes

JOHN STUART MILL
(1806-1873)

from Autobiography
from Deaths of Casimir Perier and    Georges Cuvier
from Penal Code for India
from Diary, March 8, 1854
from On Liberty

  The British economist and philosopher John Stuart Mill was born in Pentonville, London. His father, James Mill, was a philosopher who had strong ties to Jeremy Bentham and David Ricardo, and was himself a strict proponent of the utilitarian … Continue reading

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Filed under Europe, Mental Illness: depression, despair, insanity, delusion, Mill, John Stuart, Selections, The Modern Era

GIACOMO LEOPARDI
(1798-1837)

from Dialogue Between Plotinus and Porphyry

  The Italian writer Count Giacomo Leopardi was born in the provincial town of Recanati, in Marche, Italy. His home environment was oppressive. Leopardi was also plagued by continual physical maladies from an early age, including a spinal condition that … Continue reading

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Filed under Europe, Leopardi, Giacomo, Selections, The Modern Era