Category Archives: Stoicism

PAUL-LOUIS LANDSBERG
(1901-1944)

from The Moral Problem of Suicide

  Paul-Louis (also known as Paul-Ludwig) Landsberg was born in Bonn, Germany, in 1901 to a prominent family. Landsberg became a professor of philosophy at the University of Bonn in 1928. He wrote several works on anthropology and German philosophy, … Continue reading

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Filed under Christianity, Europe, Landsberg, Paul-Louis, Martyrdom, Selections, Sin, Stoicism, The Modern Era

ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER
(1788-1860)

from The World as Will and Idea
from Studies in Pessimism: On Suicide

  Born in Danzig of a wealthy merchant and a mother who was to become a famous romantic novelist, the young Schopenhauer studied modern languages in order to prepare for the mercantile career that his father desired for him. The … Continue reading

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Filed under Europe, Schopenhauer, Arthur, Selections, Sin, Stoicism, The Modern Era

WILLIAM BLACKSTONE
(1723-1780)

from Commentaries on the Laws of England

Sir William Blackstone was born in London to a wealthy family of the middle class and received a broad education in logic, mathematics, and the classics. A member and fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, he became a barrister in … Continue reading

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Filed under Blackstone, William, Europe, Selections, Stoicism, The Early Modern Period

JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU
(1712-1778)

from Julie, or the New Heloise

  Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the French philosopher, novelist, and political essayist, profoundly influenced the Enlightenment period during which he lived and the Romantic movement and French Revolution to come. He was born in Geneva in 1712; his mother died within days … Continue reading

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Filed under Europe, Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Selections, Stoicism, The Early Modern Period

MONTESQUIEU
(1689-1755)

from The Persian Letters
from Consideration of the Causes of the    Greatness of the Romans and Their    Decline
from The Spirit of Laws

  Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Bréde et de la Montesquieu, was a French political and social philosopher, jurist, satirist, and the first of the great French men of letters of the Enlightenment. Born at La Bréde near Bordeaux, … Continue reading

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Filed under Europe, Montesquieu, Selections, Stoicism, The Early Modern Period

MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE
(1533-1592)

from Of Cannibals
from A Custom of the Isle of Cea

  Lord Michel Eyquem Montaigne was born near Bordeaux, the son of the mayor of Bordeaux, a man of unusual tolerance in an age of religious intolerance. Raised speaking only Latin until the age of six, Montaigne received the very … Continue reading

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Filed under Cowardice, Courage, Bravery, Fear, Europe, Honor and Disgrace, Mental Illness: depression, despair, insanity, delusion, Montaigne, Michel de, Selections, Slavery, Stoicism, The Early Modern Period

AUGUSTINE
(354–430)

from The City of God
from On Free Choice of the Will

  Born to a small landholder, Patricius, and a pious Christian, Monica, in the small town of Thagaste in the Roman province of Numidia (modern Souk-Ahras, Algeria), Augustine of Hippo was of profound influence on the history of Western thought. … Continue reading

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Filed under Africa, Ancient History, Augustine, Christianity, Europe, Selections, Stoicism

AMBROSE
(337/340-397)

from Of Virgins: Letter to Marcellina

  Born in the city of Trier (modern Germany), Ambrose of Milan became a noted theologian, biblical critic, and hymnist, later canonized as a saint and considered the father of liturgical music. He is also known as the spiritual teacher … Continue reading

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Filed under Ambrose, Ancient History, Christianity, Europe, Martyrdom, Selections, Stoicism

JUSTIN MARTYR
(c. 100-165)

from The Second Apology: Why Christians Do Not Kill Themselves

  Saint Justin (the) Martyr, theologian and philosopher, was one of the first Christian apologists, sainted and numbered among the Fathers of the Church. He was born in the city of Flavia Neapolis (now Nabulus, West Bank), a Roman city … Continue reading

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Filed under Ancient History, Christianity, Europe, Justin Martyr, Middle East, Selections, Stoicism

EPICTETUS
(c. 55-c. 135)

from Discourses:
   How from the Doctrine of Our       Relationship to God We Are to       Deduce Its Consequences
   How We Should Bear Illness
   Of Freedom

  Born in Hierapolis, Phrygia (modern Turkey) to a slave woman, Epictetus was himself a slave during his childhood and adolescence. He was lame, according to Origen’s account, from injuries caused by his master Epaphroditus’s twisting his leg until he … Continue reading

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Filed under Afterlife, Ancient History, Epictetus, Europe, Illness and Old Age, Selections, Stoicism