Category Archives: Sin


from Lifes Preservative Against Self-Killing

  John Sym, a zealous Calvinist minister born in Scotland and bred under its predestinarian theology, became rector of Leigh-on-Sea in Essex, England, where he remained until his death. He was much respected by his parishioners, though eventually hated by … Continue reading

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Filed under Europe, Selections, Sin, Sym, John, The Early Modern Period


from Lecture on Homicide
Commentary on [Thomas Aquinas]    Summa Theologiae 2A 2AE, Q64, A.5

  Francisco de Vitoria, a Dominican theologian and writer on a wide range of topics, was one of the most influential thinkers in 16th-century Catholic Europe. Born to a Basque family in Burgos, he became a member of the Dominican … Continue reading

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Filed under Christianity, Europe, Martyrdom, Middle Ages, Selections, Sin, Vitoria, Francisco de


from Table Talk

  The German religious reformer, Martin Luther, was born in Saxony, the son of a prosperous but strict entrepreneur and local politician. In 1505, Luther received a master’s degree from the University of Erfurt, one of Germany’s finest schools. According … Continue reading

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Filed under Devil, Europe, Luther, Martin, Middle Ages, Protestantism, Selections, Sin


from Utopia
from A Dialogue of Comfort Against    Tribulation

  Born in London, the son of a prominent judge, Thomas More was educated at Oxford and Lincoln’s Inn, where he studied law. His humanist philosophy was influenced by his wide reading from scripture, the Church Fathers, classical literature, and … Continue reading

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Filed under Christianity, Devil, Europe, Middle Ages, More, Thomas, Poverty, Selections, Sin

(c. 1225-1274)

from Summa Theologiae: Whether One is Allowed to Kill Oneself

  St. Thomas Aquinas, the Italian scholastic philosopher and theologian, and the principal theological authority within the Roman Catholic Church and progenitor of the tradition known as Thomism, was the son of an Italian count, related through his mother to … Continue reading

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Filed under Aquinas, Thomas, Christianity, Europe, Middle Ages, Selections, Sin

(12-14th centuries)

On Avodah Zarah 18a
On the Torah: Concerning Genesis    Rabbah (Genesis 9:5)

  Tosafot, meaning “additions,” refers to a body of explanatory and critical remarks made by a group of Talmudic scholars known as the tosafists, who wrote in France and Germany from the late 11th–12th through the 14th centuries, during the … Continue reading

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Filed under Judaism, Middle Ages, Middle East, Selections, Sin, Tosafot

(traditional date c. 632-c. 650)

Surahs 2.54, 2.154, 2.195, 2.207, 3.145, 3.169-70, 4.29-30, 4.66, 4.74-80, 9.111, 18.6

  The Quran (meaning “recital” in Arabic) is the sacred scripture of Islam, and Muslims believe that it is the direct word of God given through the archangel Gabriel to the prophet Muhammad over a period of about 23 years, … Continue reading

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Filed under Islam, Middle Ages, Middle East, Quran, Selections, Sin

(c. 150-c. 215)

from The Miscellanies (Stromata)
   The Praises of Martyrdom
   Those Who Offered Themselves for       Martyrdom Reproved

  Titus Flavius Clemens, or St. Clement of Alexandria, was a Greek theologian of the early Christian church, the second known leader of the Alexandrian school of theology. He was born to a pagan family, allegedly in Athens, although his … Continue reading

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Filed under Africa, Ancient History, Christianity, Clement of Alexandria, Martyrdom, Selections, Sin